This Policy Brief shares insights into initial strategic decisions and challenges of four Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) with a rural presence, one from each census region (West, Midwest, Northeast, and South). Semi-structured on-site interviews were conducted with ACO leaders and key stakeholder group representatives (e.g., board members, physicians). The four ACOs were formed as a step toward a value-driven rural delivery system, recognizing that ACO participation may not have a short term return on investment. Common value-enhancing strategies included care management, post-acute care redesign, medication management, and end-of-life care planning. The four ACOs also emphasized the importance of access to data for population health management, care management, and provider participation. While several challenges need to be addressed, these insights can inform development of other rural ACOs.